2006 IAC Annual Report

  • AuthorIAC Executive Director
  • Release Date25 January 2007
  • File info Download Report
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 During the past year, we have seen the emergence of greater involvement of academies in the work of the InterAcademy Council. This trend has enriched the mission of IAC to develop reports on scientific, technological, and health issues related to the greater global challenges of our time, providing knowledge and advice to national governments and international organizations. This trend will also have profound implications for the way IAC conducts and manages its studies and programs in the future. This emergence of academy involvement is the theme of this year’s Annual Report of the IAC Executive Director.


In 2006, the IAC published a report addressing policies and programs of academies for increasing female participation in science and technology.  Academies also became actively engaged in providing crucial information and regional perspectives on topics addressed by the IAC study panel on sustainable energy resources. Organizations of academies have requested new IAC studies on topics of relevance to regional and global needs.

 1.  New IAC Advisory Report Focuses on Role of Academies in Advancing Women in Science and Technology

 On 20 June 2006, the IAC released its third report, Women for Science, at a publication release event hosted by the French Academy of Sciences in Paris. This advisory report is addressed primarily to the world’s academies.

Background. Recognizing that the low representation of women in science and engineering is a serious hindrance to global capacity building in science and technology (S&T), the IAC, at its annual meeting in January 2004, decided to initiate a short-term project for helping to remedy that situation. The IAC formed an Advisory Panel on Women for Science with the mandate to review previous studies, provide examples of successful and effective projects already implemented, and issue a set of actionable recommendations, addressed particularly to the world’s science and engineering academies.  Ten persons were appointed by IAC to serve on the Advisory Panel:


Two Advisory Panel Co-Chairs:

  • Johanna (Anneke) Levelt Sengers, (USA)
  • Manju Sharma (India)

  Eight Panelists:

  • Ken-ichi Arai (Japan)
  • Jocelyn Bell Burnell (UK)
  • Ayse Erzan (Turkey)
  • Nancy Ip (China)
  • Lydia Makhubu (Swaziland)
  • Armando Parodi (Argentina)
  • Anne Stevens (USA)
  • Jennifer Thomson (South Africa)

The work of the Advisory Panel was assisted by Jan Peters, Study Director; Steven J. Marcus, Report Editor; Judy Hemingway, Statistics and Case Studies; and Laura van Veenendaal, Project Assistant.   

Study Process. The Advisory Panel first met in Paris in February 2005. They produced draft recommendations and an outline of the report, accepted individual writing assignments, and agreed on a production timetable for the report. The Advisory Panel Co-Chairs then met with IAC staff several times and communicated regularly with Advisory Panel members throughout the year. 

The study began by circulating a questionnaire to all 95 science academies that belong to the InterAcademy Panel for International Issues (IAP). The academies were asked about programs that they had developed to attract and retain women in science and technology, the degrees of success of these initiatives, and the salient issues that they hoped the IAC Advisory Panel would address. Relevant reports from many of these academies, as well as government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and universities around the world, were then assembled. With considerable knowledge of gender-equity issues in science and technology, Advisory Panel members provided additional information. All of these materials formed the inputs for the “Women for Science” report.

The IAC Advisory Panel members had access to a central group website containing the input materials, both in their original forms and as they evolved into contributions to chapters. The Advisory Panel Co-Chairs, members, and staff, having gone through several rounds of writing, reviewing, and fine-tuning, presented a draft report to the IAC Secretariat in November 2005. This draft report was then submitted to an IAC peer-review process. with copies being mailed to the 13 reviewers on 14 November 2005. On 13 March 2006, the final report was accepted by the report monitor, incorporating numerous revisions made by the Panel in response to review

Report Themes. The report urges academies to formally commit to the full inclusion of women in their organizations, in any research institutes they manage, and throughout the S&T community.  It concludes that “good management practice” is required to help reach this goal, including commitment from the top leadership, clear criteria for promotions and awards, professional training and mentoring, and inclusion of women in formal and informal organizational networks. Specifically, the Study Panel recommends the following actions: 

  • Academies need to create a structure at the highest level that is responsible for addressing gender-equity issues, formulating and overseeing action plans, and monitoring progress.
  • Academies should seek concrete ways to add female members.  Enlarging pools of membership candidates to include more eligible women would be a good first step.  Academies should also include women members in leadership positions.
  • Reforms should not be carried out solely in-house, however.  Given their prestige and alliances with governments, universities, and nongovernmental organizations, academies should play advocacy and leadership roles beyond their own doors.
  • Academies should support the higher education of women in science, engineering, and industrial management while advising governments to remove barriers to their education and employment.  Furthermore, academies should help to empower in S&T arenas not only professional women but also women at the grassroots level in the developing world.
  • Academies should help establish and promote science and technology "knowledge centers," where women scientists and engineers can work with grassroots women of their own culture on technologies for local needs and applications, thus enabling science and technology capacity building.    

Report Release and Follow-up. Copies of the report were sent to the member academies of the InterAcademy Panel, InterAcademy Medical Panel, and International Council of Academies of Engineering and Technological Sciences.  In December 2006, the co-chairs, Anneke Levelt Senger and Manju Sharma, presented the finding of the study panel to the members of the IAP Assembly in Alexandria, Egypt.  A follow-up survey will be sent to all academies requesting updated information on activities and programs for furthering the participation of women in science and engineering.  A special website for providing information on these issues will be initiated by the IAC.

Funding. Financial contributions in support of this advisory study have been gratefully received from the L’Oréal Corporation, the Netherlands Ministry of Education, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, and an anonymous donor.


2.   Academies Provide Input to IAC Study on Transitions to Sustainable Energy Systems

At the request of the Governments of China and Brazil, and with strong support from United Nations Secretary-General, Mr. Kofi Annan, the IAC Board decided in February 2005 to launch an in-depth study on how to achieve global transitions to an adequately affordable, sustainable, clean energy supply.  This IAC study, entitled "Transitions to Sustainable Energy Systems," will be an important opportunity to provide scientific input to national and global decisionmaking.  For example, the results are expected to influence the implementation phase of the Kyoto Protocol; the follow-up to the July 2005 G8 Gleneagles Summit Communiqué on Climate Change; and the Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate among Australia, China, India, Japan, South Korea and the United States.  There are three key questions addressed in the study:

  • How can we provide universal access to affordable, modern power?
  • What is the most efficient way to address environmental costs?
  • How can we establish energy security?

Preliminary Organizing Group.  The IAC Co-Chairs appointed an Organizing Group consisting of Drs. José Goldemberg (Chair), Shem Arungu Olende, Li Jinghai, Rob Socolow, Nebosja Nakicenovic, Mohamed El-Ashry, Rajendra Pachauri, and Michael Phelps.  This Organizing Group met in Amsterdam on 25-26 April 2005 and produced a brief report to the IAC Co-Chairs regarding the following aspects of the proposed study:

  • Scope and content of the study (conceptual framework),
  • Modality of study-associated workshops,
  • Composition of the study panel, and
  • Timeline and documentation of the study.

Commissioned Papers.  The Organizing Group advised the IAC to commission a total of 19 papers on various topics considered important for the study, as “intellectual start capital” for the Study Panel.  This advice has been carried out; 16 papers have been received and used as background/discussion material in workshops. 

Study Panel.  Taking into consideration nominations from science and engineering academies and advice from the Organizing Group, the IAC Board formally approved in September 2005 a slate of candidates.  Fifteen persons were subsequently appointed to the Study Panel:    

Two Study Panel Co-Chairs:

  • Steven Chu (USA), Director, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory & Professor of Physics and Professor of Molecular and Cellular Biology University of California, Berkeley
  • José Goldemberg (Brazil), Professor of the University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil 

Thirteen Study Panel Members:

  • Ged Davis (UK), Managing Director, World Economic Forum
  • Shem Arungu Olende (Kenya), Secretary-General, African Academy of Sciences & Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Quecosult Ltd.
  • Mohamed El-Ashry (Egypt), Senior Fellow, UN Foundation
  • Thomas Johansson (Sweden), Professor of Energy Systems Analysis and Director of the International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics (IIIEE) at the University of Lund, Sweden
  • David Keith (Canada), Professor and Canada Research Chair of Energy and the Environment at the University of Calgary, Canada
  • Li Jinghai (China), Vice President of the Chinese Academy of Sciences
  • Nebosja Nakicenovic (Austria), Professor of Energy Economics at Vienna University of Technology & Leader of Energy and Technology Programs at IIASA (International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis)
  • Rajendra Pachauri (India), Director-General, The Energy & Resources Institute & Chairman, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
  • Majid Shafie-Pour (Iran), Professor and Board member of the Faculty of Environment of the University of Tehran
  • Evald Shpilrain (Russia), Head of the Department of Energy and Energy Technology at the Institute for High Temperatures of the Russian Academy of Sciences
  • Robert Socolow (USA), Professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Princeton University
  • Kenji Yamaji (Japan), Professor of Electrical Engineering at the University of Tokyo, Member of Science Council of Japan, Vice-Chair of IIASA Council, Chairman of the Green Power Certification Council of Japan
  • Yan Luguang (China), Chairman of the Scientific Committee of Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences & Honorary President of Ningbo University

The work of the Study Panel is assisted by Jos van Renswoude, Study Director; Dilip Ahuja, Professor, Indian National Institute of Advanced Studies, as Special Advisor to the Study Panel; and Marika Tatsutani, writer and editor.

Academies Sponsor IAC Energy Workshops.  The Study Panel convened seven workshops—most hosted by national scientific academies— to obtain additional insights into energy issues facing different regions of the world. 

The Durban Workshop—held in October 2005 as a satellite event to the World Conference on Physics and Sustainable Development—focused on energy challenges and controversies on the African continent. It had thematic emphases on the use of renewable energy sources (biomass, solar and wind energy); on distributed, decentralized energy supply; as well as, on leapfrogging potential. The Workshop was chaired by Study Panel Co-Chair José Goldemberg.

The Beijing Workshop—hosted by the Chinese Academy of Sciences in November 2005—was dedicated to aspects of the energy situation in China and thematically focused on energy efficiency (especially in building construction) and the application of clean technologies to the use of fossil energy sources (clean coal technology, enhanced oil recovery and carbon capture, use of gas hydrates). The Workshop was chaired by Study Panel Co-Chair Steven Chu.

The Berkeley Workshop—hosted by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in January 2006—was thematically dedicated to energy-related, cutting-edge science and technology. Topics included sustainable energy technologies and energy efficiency, potential hybridizing technologies, new plant and microbial approaches, energy transformation for transport and storage, and third and fourth generation fission nuclear energy. The participation of U.S. scientists brought attention to the U.S. energy situation. The Workshop identified new productive avenues of research that could have a strong impact on future local and global energy use. The Workshop was chaired by Study Panel Co-Chair Steven Chu.

The Rio de Janeiro Workshop—hosted by the Brazilian Academy of Sciences in March 2006—focused on the use of biomass and biofuels as sources of energy in Latin America, on the energy-related problems of large cities – such as transportation and air pollution (both in general and Latin America-specific), and on the quality of electrical power delivered to rural and urban areas. The Workshop was chaired by Study Panel Co-Chair José Goldemberg.

The New Delhi Workshop—hosted by the Indian National Science Academy in May 2006—paid in-depth attention to the complex energy situation (now and in the future) in the Indian subcontinent. Particular topics addressed were the conversion of biomass into liquid fuels for urban transport, the deployment of decentralized energy systems (including biomass-based ones), clean coal technology and carbon capture & sequestration, and the future use of nuclear power--costs, single vs. multiple fuel cycles, safety, and non-proliferation issues. The Workshop was chaired by Study Panel Member Robert Socolow. 

The Paris Workshop—hosted by the French Academy of Sciences in June 2006—focused on the energy situation in Europe.  Particular topics addressed were the potential of biomass as a source of energy in Europe, European perspectives on wind and solar power, energy demand management and end-use efficiency, nuclear energy (reactors, fuel cycles, waste-storage, safety and security), and energy security in Europe.  The workshop was chaired by Study Panel Co-Chairs José Goldemberg and Steven Chu. 

The Tokyo Workshop—hosted by the Science Council of Japan in December 2006—focused on the energy situation in Japan.  Particular topics addressed were energy conversion and storage; energy demand management and efficiency; and global warming and energy. The workshop was chaired by Study Panel Co-Chair Steven Chu. 

Study Panel Meetings.  The first meeting of the full Study Panel was held during 31 January – 2 February 2006 in Amsterdam, coinciding with the 2006 Annual IAC Board Meeting. This first Study Panel meeting focused on the following topics:

  • Definitive conceptual framework for the study,
  • Tentative layout of the report,
  • Distribution of tasks within the Study Panel and between Panel and staff, 

The second Study Panel meeting was held in Amsterdam during 24-25 June 2006 to review preliminary draft chapters and to further develop report texts. It was decided that the focus of the report text would address four key issues: 

  • Transition pathways to sustainable energy systems.
  • Policy and financial requirements for achieving sustainability.
  • Research & development priorities.
  • Investment levels in research, development, and demonstration.

Publication Timeline.  The study report will undergo an extensive, monitored, peer review to be conducted by IAC during February-March 2007.  The published report is anticipated to be released in summer 2007 through events sponsored by academies worldwide. Through partnership with Resource Media, a nonprofit communications firm based in San Francisco, IAC is undertaking a major communications initiative for the release and promotion of this report, funded by the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation.

Funding. Financial contributions for this study have been gratefully received from the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Government of Brazil, the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, the United Nations Foundation, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, and the Energy Foundation. 

3.  IAC to Address Global Water Challenges in Support of Worldwide Academy Efforts

The InterAcademy Panel has sponsored a program of activities devoted to issues related to water resources.  The Brazilian Academy of Sciences serves as lead academy for this IAP Water Research and Management Programme.  This program has sponsored workshops in several countries focusing on regional water challenges. Major topics include science-based solutions for mitigating major sources of pollution in streams, rivers, and lakes; and improving access to safe drinking water. The IAP Water Research and Management Programme is now considering a possible collaboration between IAP and the Global Health and Education Foundation (GHEF), a U.S. foundation established by Kenneth Behring, focused on addressing the urgent need for safe drinking water worldwide, especially in poor communities.

In support of the IAP Water Research and Management Programme, in 2007 the IAC Board will consider launching a series of in-depth science-based advisory studies on policies for addressing critical needs related to water resources.  This IAC study program could include such topics as drinking water resources, agricultural water resources, water recycling, and impact mitigation of a potential rise in sea level. 

4.  G8 Academies Urge New Study on Improving Global Surveillance of Diseases

On 14 June 2006, the scientific academies of the G8 nations, plus the four nations of Brazil, China, India, and South Africa, issued a joint statement to the national governments convening at the 2006 G8 Meeting in St. Petersburg, Russia, entitled ”Joint Science Academies’ Statement: Avian Influenza and Infectious Diseases.”  

Global surveillance is the fundamental instrument for the control of emerging and zoonotic diseases. The current multicomponent and uncoordinated system is not adequate in geographic coverage and human or scientific capacity. The policies for improvement and coordination will involve multiple levels of national and international governmental institutions as well as a variety of scientific, public health and non-governmental organizations as stakeholders in the current and future systems.

G8 governments should therefore seek an independent, evidence-based study (for example by the InterAcademy Council, involving experts from G8 countries and the developing world) to make recommendations for further development of global surveillance capabilities. Such a study would include the appropriate roles, coordination and reporting mechanisms; the human, scientific and technological capacities; and the related costs to improve the world's disease surveillance capability. 

At its January 2007 Annual Meeting, the IAC Board will discuss a proposal for the InterAcademy Council, in partnership with the InterAcademy Medical Panel to undertake an independent, evidence-based study to make recommendations for further development of global surveillance capabilities for addressing emerging zoonotic diseases, such as avian influenza and SARS.  Such a study would include the appropriate roles, coordination, and reporting mechanisms; the human, scientific and technological capacities; and the related costs to improve the world’s disease surveillance capability. 

5.  African Academies Request IAC to Study Role of African Universities in Innovation 

On 1 August 2006, the IAC Co-Chairs received a request from the Network of African National Science Academies (NASAC) to undertake a short-term advisory project to develop a set of recommendations for strengthening the contributions of universities and other higher education institutions in Africa for innovation and national development. To accomplish this goal, it is proposed that a study panel be constituted by IAC to seek to ensure that the recommendations generated reflect readily the conditions and systems as they vary from country to country.  The audience for this project would include the African Association of Universities (AAU), the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), the African Ministerial Council for Science and Technology (AMCOST), and the African Development Bank (AfDB).

At its January 2007 Annual Meeting, the IAC Board will discuss a proposal for the InterAcademy Council to undertake a short-term advisory project to develop a set of action recommendations for strengthening the contributions of universities and other higher education institutions in Africa to innovation and national development. The recommendations would be of relevance to university administrators, staff/faculty, and research personnel; African government officials; academies of science and/or technology; international organizations such as UN organizations and the World Bank; and governmental and private financial contributors to international development.  

6.  IAC to Initiate Worldwide Project of Academies to Improve Measures of Progress in Building Worldwide S&T Capacities.   

During 2006, the IAC has been preparing to undertake a project—to be sponsored in conjunction with other organizations—whereby volunteering academies of sciences from all regions of the world will review current national S&T statistics in their respective countries.  The participating academies will also be tasked to suggest improved statistics that better measure dynamic changes in the quality and effectiveness of national innovation systems and programs. A project proposal will be considered by the IAC Board at its Annual Meeting in January 2007.  The project would focus on four thematic components: 

  • National goals related to building S&T capacities;
  • Improved indicators of S&T capacity at the national level;
  • Improved indicators of S&T capacity at the institutional level (universities, independent research facilities, national academies);
  • Consistent long-term national and institutional efforts for data collection and analyses, allowing for monitoring of progress in achieving S&T goals. 

International conferences would be convened during the project and at its conclusion to review results and to plan next efforts to improve S&T indicators in developing nations.   


The scope and range of new IAC studies and programs being planned for 2007 will require greater intellectual and financial resources for initiating, funding, and managing IAC studies programs. This has implications for the future role and organization of the IAC Board and secretariat, necessitating an even greater participation of academies worldwide in the work of the InterAcademy Council. 

1.  Changes in IAC Board

New IAC Board Members.  New members joined the IAC during 2006.  Ichiro Kanazawa succeeded Kiyoshi Kurokawa as President of the Science Council of Japan.  Matthias Kleiner succeeded Ernst Winnacker as President of the Deutches Forchungsgemeinschaft. Jacob Palis succeeded C.N.R. Rao as President of the Academy of Sciences for the Developing World (TWAS). Jules Hoffmann succeeded Edouard Brezin as President of the Académie des Sciences, France. And Ralph Cicerone, President of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS), joined the IAC Board as official representative of the U.S. NAS.  

Accordingly, at the end of 2006 the IAC Board was composed as follows: Co-Chairs: Bruce Alberts, former President, U.S. National Academy of Sciences; Lu Yongxiang, President, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Members: Reza Davari Ardekani, President, Academy of Sciences of the Islamic Republic of Iran; Engin Bermek, President, Turkish Academy of Sciences; Ralph Cicerone, President, U.S. National Academy of Sciences; Mohamed H.A. Hassan, President, African Academy of Sciences; Jules Hoffmann, President, Académie des Sciences, France; Ichiro Kanazawa, President, Science Council of Japan;  Matthias Kleiner, President, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft; Eduardo Moacyr Krieger, President, Brazilian Academy of Sciences; Servet Martinez Aguilera, President, Chilean Academy of Sciences; R.A. Mashelkar, President, Indian National Science Academy; Jacob Palis, President, Academy of Sciences for the Developing World (TWAS); Martin Rees, President, The Royal Society of London; Salleh Mohd Nor, Vice-President, Academy of Sciences of Malaysia; S.E. Vizi, President, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.  Observers: Howard Alper, Co-Chair, InterAcademy Panel on International Issues; Frits van Oostrom, President, Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences; Goverdhan Mehta, President, International Council for Science (ICSU); Achiel van Cauwenberghe, Past President, International Council of Academies of Engineering and Technological Sciences (CAETS); and David Challoner,  Former Co-Chair, InterAcademy Medical Panel (IAMP). 

New Category of IAC Board Membership. At the 2006 Annual Meeting, the Board recognized the need to give partner organizations a role and position in IAC governance and decisionmaking. It unanimously approved the idea of introducing into the IAC Bylaws a category of ex officio members with full voting rights. It requested that the IAC consult with the IAP on the acceptability of such an amendment of the IAC Bylaws and, if so, agreed to consult with the InterAcademy Panel (IAP), InterAcademy Medical Panel (IAMP), International Council of Academies of Engineering and Technological Sciences (CAETS), and the International Council for Science (ICSU), as to whether they would agree to accept such an ex officio membership.  That process has been completed and one of the first action items of the IAC Board in 2007 has been to amend to the IAC Bylaws to create full voting ex officio memberships for representatives of partner organizations.

Proposed IAC Board Planning and Oversight Committees.  At the 2006 IAC Annual Meeting, the Board recognized the need for greater involvement of members in planning, funding, coordination, and oversight of IAC studies and programs.  In early 2007, the IAC Board will consider creation of two permanent Board committees: Relations with Other International Organizations, and IAC Programs and Finance.  These committees would provide ongoing consultation, advice, and oversight to IAC staff as new studies are initiated, project funding is sought, and studies are conducted and reports produced. 

2.  Increased IAC Board Efforts to Secure Financial Support

Expanding the portfolio of IAC programs will require members of the IAC Board to become more actively engaged in efforts to identify and secure sources of funds. Funding is the limiting factor for launching new IAC studies and programs. Past experience with IAC studies indicates that a full eighteen-month IAC study with regional workshops (such as the studies on African agriculture and sustainable energy resources) requires funding of $1,250,000. A professional effort for generating worldwide publicity for the study requires an additional $250,000. Thus IAC should set a funding target of $1,500,000 for each new large-scale study.  This requires considerable time and effort to secure funding from donors, including government agencies, foundations, corporations, and private philanthropists. 

To date, IAC has obtained project grants from foundations, governments, a corporation, and a private benefactor, totalling nearly $3,000,000. The Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW) provides an annual contribution to and in-kind support for the IAC secretariat totalling Euro270,000.  IAC Board member academies also provide support for the IAC secretariat and IAC studies. In 2006, voluntary financial commitments to IAC included $50,000 from the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Euro20,000 from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, and $3,000 from the Chinese Academy of Sciences.  The Japan Ministry of Foreign Affairs provided Euro10,000. Contributions to the IAC energy study include $50,000 from the Brazilian Academy of Sciences, $60,000 from the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Euro100,000 from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, as well as local support for IAC regional energy workshops hosted by the Indian National Science Academy, the French Academy of Sciences, and the Science Council of Japan. The U.S. National Academy of Sciences provided $25,000 for support of the Women for Science study report dissemination.

I am pleased to report that during 2005-2006 the IAC obtained sufficient funding to complete its current set of studies without incurring any debt. At the same time, IAC was able to reduce its debt to the KNAW by Euro100,000. Because of insufficient revenues for its first two studies during 2002-2004, the IAC had borrowed Euro250,000 from KNAW to complete those studies. In 2006, the IAC entered into an agreement with KNAW to provide an annual payment of Euro50,000 through 2009, whereupon the debt repayment obligation to KNAW would be fulfilled..

3.  Proposed New IAC Development Advisory Group

To implement a larger portfolio of IAC projects, additional financial resources will be required to initiate new studies and augment grants received from donor organizations. It is proposed to establish a new IAC Development Advisory Group, composed of experienced individuals from the S&T community, international organizations, foundations, corporations, and philanthropies.  This Advisory Group would advise the IAC Board on funding prospects for specific projects and help with development of an endowment for providing ongoing financial support of IAC programs.


4. Proposed Reorganization of the IAC Secretariat in 2007

The IAC Secretariat is hosted by the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences in Amsterdam.  John P. Campbell continues to serve as IAC Executive Director. He assumed this position in May 2005 and re-located to Amsterdam from Washington, DC, where he had been a staff officer at the U.S. National Academies.  Ms. Shu-Hui Tan joined the IAC Staff in November 2006 as IAC Office Manager.  The KNAW staff position of IAC Director of Studies will be ended in 2007 upon completion of the IAC energy study. The IAC continues to employ consultants, serving as needed for professional staffing of studies and publication development. 

The scope and range of new IAC studies and programs being planned for 2007 will require greater staff resources. It is proposed to expand the IAC Secretariat through a new global network of senior-level staff.  To begin, three new staff positions – IAC Associate Directors – would be appointed to provide greater professional support and oversight for IAC studies and programs. These persons would be appointed from staff or associates of IAC member academies; they would serve in the IAC staff positions on either a part-time or full-time basis. Salaries for these new Associate Directors would be provided by their host academies. These IAC Associate Directors would work primarily at their employing academies, utilizing communications technologies to conduct assignments in coordination with Amsterdam-based staff.  Staff meetings and assignments at the IAC Secretariat would be funded by the IAC to enhance teamwork.  The resulting worldwide, networked secretariat would provide not only needed resources for IAC programs but also staff capacity building for member academies through their participation in the management of policy-related advisory studies.  



Since its founding in 2000, the InterAcademy Council has demonstrated its ability to produce and publish high-quality advisory reports on critical issues confronting humanity.  IAC operates by proven governance and rules of procedure for ensuring the integrity of its independent, science-based study processes. The opportunities for contributing to the global community are many, but to exploit them effectively will require a substantial increase in staff resources, dispersed in member academies, as well as more effective efforts at raising funding for planned studies. We are also learning that the involvement of other organizations in the work of IAC enriches the content and reach of IAC reports. Thus the task ahead is to engage other organizations while retaining the main strengths of IAC – its strong connection to academies and the rules and procedures for ensuring the integrity of IAC reports. 


John P. Campbell
IAC Executive Director
25 January 2007